Overuse Syndrome


Bursitis is caused by inflammation of a bursa, a small jelly-like sac that usually contains a small amount of fluid. Bursae are located throughout the body, most importantly around the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and heel. They act as cushions between bones and the overlying soft tissues, and help reduce friction between the gliding muscles and the bone. There are many bursae throughout the body, and bursitis can develop in any of these structures.

Subacromial bursitis: Symptoms include pain in your upper third of your arm, and severe pain upon moving your arm away from your body and above the shoulder.

Trochanteric bursitis: Symptoms include pain gradually occurring over the side of your hip; pain when sleeping on the affected side, rising from a deep chair, sitting in a car or climbing stairs; and pain when walking or running. It may develop in people with abnormal walking patterns caused by arthritis of the hip, knee or ankle. It also may affect people with unequal leg lengths, usually in the longer leg. It may even result from hip strengthening exercises performed after a hip replacement.

Ischial bursitis (weaver's bottom, tailor's seat): Symptoms include pain when sitting directly on a hard surface and pain that travels to the back of your thigh.

Olecranon bursitis (student's elbow): Symptoms include swelling at the tip of your elbow that sometimes causes pain and redness.

Prepatellar bursitis (housemaid's knee): Symptoms include swelling in teh front of your knee that is usually acutely painful, making it difficult or impossible to kneel. Redness and/or warmth may occur with infection or gout.

Infrapatellar bursitis (clergyman's knee): is a similar condition that affects the infrapatellar bursa, locatd just below the kneecap.

Pes anserinus bursitis: Symptoms include pain on the inner part of the upper leg; pain while sleeping on your side if your legs touch; pain while climbing stairs; and pain that travles to the back and inside of your thigh.

Retrocalcaneal bursitis (sub-Achilles bursitis): Symptoms include swelling, tenderness and pain along the tendon's sides. This bursitis usually results from inflammation associated with various forms of arthritis such as ankylosing spondylitis, RA, reactive arthritis or psoriatic arthritis. It can be caused by overuse in athletic activities such as tennis, volleyball and basketball.

Subcutaneous Achilles bursitis: Bursitis in this area can result from the heel rubbing against the back of improperly fitted shoes. Runners may develop it from repetitive activity. Among people with RA, it can be caused by a rheumatoid nodule at the site.


Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon - a thick cord that attaches muscle to bone. Tendons act as pulleys to help muscles move a joint.

Rotator cuff tendinitis and impingement syndrome: Rotator cuff tendinitis occurs when shoulder injury or overuse causes a tendon to becomeirritated or inflamed. Impingement occurs when tendons are pinched between structures involved in shoulder motion. Symptoms include severe pain in your shoulder or upper third of your arm when raising the arm out and away from your side. In some cases this condition may recur or worsen with time and/or repetitive activity. It's usually possible to engage in hand and arm activity with the arm down at the side without causing pain.

Bicipital tendinitis: Symptoms include pain in the front of your shoulder that can travel down to your elbow and forearm.

De Quervain's tendinitis: Symptoms include pain and swelling over your wrist on the side of your thumb, especially with thumb motion.

Achilles tendinitis: Usually results from a sports injury or improperly fitting shoes. It may be a side effect of certain antibotics. Symptoms can include swelling and ankle stiffness and pain in the back of your ankle when pulling your toes up toward you or when pushing off the ball of your foot. This latter motion is part of a normal walking pattern, so walking may be painful as well.

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

In this condition, the bony point outside and above your elbow, called the lateral epicondyle, or the tendon just below it may become swollen and tender. Tennis elbow can reslt from overuse of the forearm muscles necessary for a strong grip in tennis or other sports, as well as gardening or using tools that require clenching your hand for a long time. It can also result from excessive computer keyboard and mouse use.
Symptoms include aching pain on the outside of your elbow that can travel down the back of your forearm, and pain with handshakes, movement of your fingers, lifting with your wrist, turning doorknobs or unscrewing jar tops.

Golfer's Elbow (Medial Epicondylitis)

This condition is similar to tennis elbow but involves the inside of the elbow. It's caused by overusing the anterior forearm muscles that clench your fingers. Symptoms include pain in the inner part of your elbow and pain when bending your fingers or wrists.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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